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INFLUENZA (FLU) Causes, Risk Factors & Prevention

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Influenza is a viral infection that attacks your respiratory system — your nose, throat and lungs. Influenza is commonly called the flu

For most people, influenza resolves on its own. But sometimes, influenza and its complications can be deadly. People at higher risk of developing flu complications include:

  • Young children under age 5, and especially those under 2 years
  • Adults older than age 65
  • Residents of nursing homes and other long-term care facilities
  • Pregnant women and women up to two weeks postpartum
  • People with weakened immune systems
  • People who have chronic illnesses, such as asthma, heart disease, kidney disease, liver disease and diabetes
  • People who are very obese, with a body mass index (BMI) of 40 or higher

When to see a doctor

  • Most people who get the flu can treat themselves at home and often don’t need to see a doctor.
  • If you have flu symptoms and are at risk of complications, see your doctor right away. Taking antiviral drugs within the first 48 hours after you first notice symptoms may reduce the length of your illness and help prevent more-serious problems.

Causes

Flu viruses travel through the air in droplets when someone with the infection coughs, sneezes or talks. You can inhale the droplets directly, or you can pick up the germs from an object — such as a telephone or computer keyboard — and then transfer them to your eyes, nose or mouth.

People with the virus are likely contagious from the day or so before symptoms first appear until about five days after symptoms begin. Children and people with weakened immune systems may be contagious for a slightly longer time.

Influenza viruses are constantly changing, with new strains appearing regularly. If you’ve had influenza in the past, your body has already made antibodies to fight that particular strain of the virus. If future influenza viruses are similar to those you’ve encountered before, either by having the disease or by vaccination, those antibodies may prevent infection or lessen its severity.

But antibodies against flu viruses you’ve encountered in the past can’t protect you from new influenza subtypes that can be very different immunologically from what you had before.

Risk factors

Factors that may increase your risk of developing influenza or its complications include:

  • Age. Seasonal influenza tends to target young children and older adults.
  • Living or working conditions. People who live or work in facilities with many other residents, such as nursing homes or military barracks, are more likely to develop influenza.
  • Weakened immune system. Cancer treatments, anti-rejection drugs, corticosteroids and HIV/AIDS can weaken your immune system. This can make it easier for you to catch influenza and may also increase your risk of developing complications.
  • Chronic illnesses. Chronic conditions, such as asthma, diabetes or heart problems, may increase your risk of influenza complications.
  • Pregnancy. Pregnant women are more likely to develop influenza complications, particularly in the second and third trimesters. Women who are up to two weeks postpartum also are more likely to develop influenza-related complications.
  • Obesity. People with a BMI of 40 or more have an increased risk of complications from the flu.

Complications

If you’re young and healthy, seasonal influenza usually isn’t serious. Although you may feel miserable while you have it, the flu usually goes away in a week or two with no lasting effects. But high-risk children and adults may develop complications such as:

  • Pneumonia
  • Bronchitis
  • Asthma flare-ups
  • Heart problems
  • Ear infections

Prevention

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends annual flu vaccination for everyone age 6 months or older.

Each year’s seasonal flu vaccine contains protection from the three or four influenza viruses that are expected to be the most common during that year’s flu season.

Controlling the spread of infection

The influenza vaccine isn’t 100 percent effective, so it’s also important to take measures such as these to reduce the spread of infection:

  • Wash your hands. Thorough and frequent hand-washing is an effective way to prevent many common infections. Or use alcohol-based hand sanitizers if soap and water aren’t readily available.
  • Contain your coughs and sneezes. Cover your mouth and nose when you sneeze or cough. To avoid contaminating your hands, cough or sneeze into a tissue or into the inner crook of your elbow.
  • Avoid crowds. Flu spreads easily wherever people congregate — in child care centers, schools, office buildings, auditoriums and public transportation. By avoiding crowds during peak flu season, you reduce your chances of infection. And if you’re sick, stay home for at least 24 hours after your fever subsides so that you lessen your chance of infecting others.

Diagnosis

Your doctor will conduct a physical exam, look for signs and symptoms of influenza, and possibly order a test that detects influenza viruses.

The most commonly used test is called a rapid influenza diagnostics test, which looks for substances (antigens) on a swab sample from the back of the nose or throat. These tests can provide results in about 15 minutes. However, results vary greatly and are not always accurate. Your doctor may diagnose you with influenza based on symptoms, despite having a negative test result.

More-sensitive flu tests are available in some specialized hospitals and labs.

Treatment

Usually, you’ll need nothing more than bed rest and plenty of fluids to treat the flu. But in some cases, your doctor may prescribe an antiviral medication. If taken soon after you notice symptoms, these drugs may shorten your illness by a day or so and help prevent serious complications.

Antiviral medication side effects may include nausea and vomiting. These side effects may be lessened if the drug is taken with food.

Lifestyle and home remedies

If you do come down with the flu, these measures may help ease your symptoms:

  • Drink plenty of liquids. Choose water, juice and warm soups to prevent dehydration.
  • Rest. Get more sleep to help your immune system fight infection.
  • Consider pain relievers. Use an over-the-counter pain reliever, such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen to combat the achiness associated with influenza. Use caution when giving aspirin to children or teens because of the risk of Reye’s syndrome, a rare but potentially fatal condition.

To help control the spread of influenza in your community, stay home and keep sick children home until fever has been gone for 24 hours.

Dr Mubeen Matheen Ahmed
MBBS, MD

10 Tips to Treat Fungal Infections by Dermatologist & Cosmetologist

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Fungal infections are common throughout much of the natural world. In humans, fungal infections occur when an invading fungus takes over an area of the body and is too much for the immune system to handle. Fungi can live in the air, soil, water, and plants.

There are also some fungi that live naturally in the human body. Like many microbes, there are helpful fungi and harmful fungi. When harmful fungi invade the body, they can be difficult to kill, as they can survive in the environment and re-infect the person trying to get better.

In this article, we will look at how we can prevent and treat fungal infections.

  1. Treat the Area for as Long as Recommended
    Anti-fungal medicine may work quickly. You may see clearing or no longer feel symptoms in a few days. If this happens, you should still treat the area for as long as your dermatologist recommends.
  2. Wash Your Hands Before Touching
    After touching the area with ringworm, wash your hands before touching another area of your body. Touching or scratching the area with ringworm and then touching another area can spread ringworm from one part of your body to another. Washing your hands well can help prevent this.
  3. Keep the Infected Area Clean and Dry

    • The fungus that causes ringworm thrives in warm, moist areas, so you have to keep the area clean and dry.
    • When cleaning the area with ringworm, wash the affected area and dry it with a clean towel. Use another clean towel to dry the other parts of your body.
    • Before using these towels again, wash them in hot water. To keep the area dry, avoid wearing clothes, socks, and shoes that make you sweat.
  4. Treat All Ringworm at the Same Time
    If you have athlete’s foot and ringworm on your hands, it’s important to treat both your feet and hands. If you treat only one area, you’ll still have a ringworm infection. The infection can quickly spread to other areas again. Because ringworm is very contagious, you can also spread ringworm to other people.
  5. Change Your Clothes, Including Underwear and Socks, Every Day
    Wash the clothes before wearing them again. This includes clothes you wear to work out.
  6. Shower After Working Out
    Fungi thrive in moist, warm areas. You have to wash away perspiration and keep the area dry.
  7. Avoid Sharing Towels and Other Personal Items
    You can easily spread ringworm to others by sharing towels, hats, combs, and other personal items. The fungi can survive on objects for a long time.
  8. Wear Shower Thongs or Waterproof Shoes
    You must wear shower thongs or waterproof shoes in locker rooms, showers that others use, and pool areas. If you have athlete’s foot, this helps prevent spreading it to others. It also gives you some protection if someone else has ringworm.
  9. Disinfect Infected Items
    The fungi that cause ringworm can survive for a long time. To avoid re-infecting yourself with infected items, you should wash clothes, towels, and bedding that you use while you have ringworm. Be sure to wash everything in hot, soapy water.
    Disinfecting items is also important because if you continue to use an infected item, treatment may not work.
  10. Keep All Follow-Up Appointments with Best Dermatologist
    Ringworm often clears with the first treatment a dermatologist prescribes. Sometimes, ringworm can be stubborn, or patients unknowingly do something that prevents the treatment from working. For these reasons, it best to keep follow-up appointments.

Dr. Aditya Favade
D. Dermatology (Ay.)
Dermatologist & Cosmetologist